[erlang-questions] lists:all/2 unexpected result for the empty list
James Aimonetti
james@REDACTED
Wed Jul 20 06:30:02 CEST 2011
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Thanks for the lesson. Both this reply and your other one in another
part of the thread were illuminating.
James
On 07/19/2011 07:44 PM, Richard O'Keefe wrote:
>
> On 20/07/2011, at 10:16 AM, James Aimonetti wrote:
>
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>> Was wondering the reasoning for lists:all/2 returning true when passed
>> an empty list as the second parameter?
>>
>> lists:all(some_fun/1, []) => 'true'
>
> Because that's the way universal quantifiers are *SUPPOSED* to work.
>
> lists:all(F, L) is true [assuming the types are right]
> precisely when there is no element X of L such that F(X) is false.
>
> Since [] has no elements, it cannot have any that would falsify some_fun.
>
> It's just the same in Lisp:
> (EVERY predicate list...) returns false as soon as any invocation of predicate
> returns false. If the end of a sequence is reached, every returns true.
> Thus, every returns true if and only if every invocation of predicate returns true.
>
> It's just the same in Smalltalk:
>
> aSequence allSatisfy: [:x | some test on x]
> answers false if aSequence has some element falsifying the test,
> true otherwise, so #() allSatisfy: anything is true.
>
> It's just the same in Haskell.
>
> It's also just the same in mathematics, where
> (∀x∈∅) p(x)
> is required to be true.
>
>> The definition in lists.erl for all/2 shows why it returns true:
>
> No, the definition shows HOW it returns true, but not WHY.
> WHY is because all/2 is an iterated "and", and the identity
> for "and" is "true".
>
> One of the major weaknesses in the Aristotelian syllogisms was
> the assumption that "all Xs are Ys" entailed there being at
> least one X. The convention used in Erlang is that of modern
> logic.
>
> In just the same way, existential quantifiers are supposed to return
> false if you quantify over an empty set, sums to return 0,
> products to return 1, and other such operations to return their
> identities.
>
>
- --
James Aimonetti
Distributed Systems Engineer / DJ MC_
2600hz | http://2600hz.com
sip:james@REDACTED
tel: 415.886.7905
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